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canada goose store Ah for every one step forward two steps backward. The Pew Research Center just published a survey conducted in 40 countries demonstrating that many people in the canada goose jacket outlet store world still hold onto the idea that one must believe in god to canada goose outlet phone number be moral. That view is more common in the poorer countries; and the idea is nearly universal in Africa and the Middle East (with the exception of Israel). The survey is deeply depressing because the idea that faith canada goose outlet niagara falls in god is essential to morality is one of humanity’s most dangerous and destructive myths. canada goose store
canada goose coats on sale As I argued in Beyond Cosmic Dice, religion pathologically persists in service of canada goose outlet mall five different masters of human weakness: fear of death and the promise of seeing lost loved ones; the need to explain away the unknown; hope for controlling one’s destiny; canada goose outlet factory a desire for social cohesion; and the corrupting allure of political power. So we create, each of us, and collectively, a god who is all powerful and all knowing to address some combination of these five masters, or all of them. canada goose coats on sale
There is no link between morality and the five pillars; nothing about being moral canada goose outlet locations in toronto would lead to a belief in god. The two concepts do not intersect. The history of religion proves the point.
Canada Goose sale That morality does not derive from, or lead to, religion has been the conclusion of some of canada goose coats uk our greatest minds, including David Hume, the father of religious studies. Due to certain inconveniences, like the possibility of being burned alive at the stake, Hume restricted his writings to polytheism. But it takes no great leap to read between the lines and apply his words to monotheism and Christianity in particular. Hume did not believe morality is a gift from god because he thought religion a false construct and therefore no foundation for human behavior or thought. Instead, humanity’s first beliefs in a higher power were borne of ignorance and fear of the natural world: every disaster that befalls us demands an explanation. Naturally, multiple unknown causes leads to the idea of multiple powers; polytheism is the natural state of a primitive mind. Canada Goose sale
Canada Goose Outlet We hang in perpetual suspense between life and death, health and sickness, plenty and want; which are distributed amongst the human species by secret and unknown causes, whose operation is oft unexpected, and always unaccountable. These unknown causes, then, become the constant object of our hope and fear. Canada Goose Outlet
Canada Goose online But so too does this apply to belief in one god; one is just a derivative of many. The idea of powerful gods, or a god, controlling each important aspect of our lives would not by itself be satisfying. We want to put a face to the power; we want to be familiar with the deities that control our fate; we want to know them so that we can communicate with them and solicit their interventions. We are all Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz, seeking to reveal the nature of the man behind the curtain, hoping to strike up a conversation with whoever is in charge. Canada Goose online
buy canada goose jacket cheap By no coincidence then do our gods take on idealized human form. Our egoistic species has a universal tendency to transfer human like qualities to surrounding objects, giving them characteristics that are familiar to us. This tendency canada goose outlet to anthropomorphize everything around us has the consequence that we attribute human malice or benevolence to inanimate objects, and of course to the gods above. With their human form, gods also take on human personalities, with passions and weaknesses that make them jealous, vengeful, spiteful, fickle, wicked and foolish. How comforting to know that one’s fate and fortune, tossed about by canada goose womens outlet unknown causes, can be controlled by dialogue with an invisible power that possesses familiar sentiments and intelligence! buy canada goose jacket cheap
Canada Goose Parka But attributing human qualities to a higher power has a paradoxical consequence, one leading inevitably to the idea of multiple gods, at least initially. We raise our own estimation of ourselves as god like, but diminish the power of the very gods we create by humanizing them. Once again, Hume is right on the money: Canada Goose Parka
canada goose clearance sale They suppose their deities, however potent and invisible, to be nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised from among mankind, and retaining all human passions and appetites, together with corporeal limbs and organs. canada goose outlet in chicago Such limited beings, though masters of human fate, being, each of them, incapable of extending his influence everywhere, must be vastly multiplied, in order to answer the variety of events, which happen over the whole face of nature. Thus every place is stored with a crowd of local deities; and thus polytheism has prevailed. canada goose clearance sale
canada goose The idea that deities are “nothing but a species of human creatures, perhaps raised from among mankind” of course applies to more than the old discarded gods of the past. The words exactly describe Jesus. The link between the one god of today and the many of the past is forged in steel. The characteristics that originated in polytheism continued to apply even as the number of gods diminished. https://www.getcanadagooseoutlet.com One could argue, in fact, that today’s religions are not truly monotheistic. Christianity has created hundreds of objects of worship in the guise of saints, who have become minor gods to many followers. These pretended religionists are really a kind of superstitious atheists, and acknowledge no being, that corresponds to our idea of deity. canada goose
So we conclude that most of the multiple divinities of the ancient world were supposed to have been human or human like, thereby diminishing their power. Yet Christianity is no different: we have Jesus, in the flesh, bleeding like a regular guy, no different from what Hume disparages in his idea of a cruder polytheistic god. Like many gods, one god is nothing better than the elves or fairies of our ancestors. Nowhere in this narrative is there any suggestion that morality is linked to religion, or that morality elsewhere derived would lead to a belief in god.
canadian goose jacket While I emphasize David Hume as the father of canada goose outlet canada religious studies, we cannot neglect to mention its grandfather, Baruch de Spinoza, who preceded Hume by almost 100 years. When Spinoza took on the question of ethics he created a path to secular enlightenment that Hume did not fully assimilate. I raise this here because at no point in Spinoza’s masterpiece, Tractatus Theologico Politicus did he ever link the development of human morality with a future belief canada goose outlet legit in god. As did Hume later, Spinoza concluded that the history of religion precludes any connection at all between morality and religion, in any order. canadian goose jacket
canada goose coats Religion’s history begs an important question: why of all the gods does the god canada goose outlet orlando of Abraham own the right to morality? The history of religion can be understood as the winnowing of gods from many to one. What this means is that all of us are atheists, even the most devout, undoubting, dedicated priest, rabbi or mullah. Atheist means “without god,” and all of us are without at least some gods. All monotheistic believers reject all gods, except one. They reject all the Greek elder gods Cronus, Gaea, Uranus, Rhea, Oceanus, Tethys, Hyperion, Mnemosyne, Themis, Iapetus, Coeus, Crius, Phoebe, Thea, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Atlas, Metis, and Dione. Muslims, Jews and Christians all deny the existence of the Greek Olympic gods Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hestia, Hera, Ares, Athena, Apollo, Aphrodite, Hermes, Artemis, and Hephaestus. All major religions today dismiss canada goose outlet in uk as nothing but myth the Roman gods Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Pluto, Apollo, Diana, Mars, Venus, Cupid, Mercury, Minerva, Ceres, Proserpine, Vulcan, Bacchus, Saturn, Vesta, Janus, Uranus and Maia. Yet this roster of gods was real to multiple thousands of people for thousands of years, every bit as real as the one god worshipped by Christians, Muslims and Jews today. Was the morality derived from a belief in those gods any different from what we see today with one? If asked, Christians, Jews and Muslims today would use numerous and diverse reasons to deny the existence of Greek and Roman gods, who were so buy canada goose uk important to so many people for so long. I simply extend that reasoning to include the one remaining god. Everybody rejects as silly the idea of gods; I merely exclude the existence of one more god than those who consider themselves religious. canada goose coats
canada goose clearance Something that canada goose kensington parka uk we all reject is hardly a sound basis for morality. A more compelling basis would be the Tooth Fairy. Hear me out. No adult takes the myth seriously, of course. Yet the evidence for the existence of the Tooth Fairy is in fact more compelling than that for any other belief system. As a child, you put your recently yanked tooth under your pillow. The next morning, lo and behold, you have a dollar where the tooth used to be. That is concrete, real, undeniable evidence that the Tooth Fairy canada goose clothing uk came to visit during the night. What other explanation could be possible with such incontrovertible evidence? What could be more compelling: you can hold that dollar in your hand, canada goose outlet store near me and you know for a fact that the previous night only a tooth lay beneath your head. The Tooth Fairy exists, end of story. Now, science might try to convince you, as a five year old, that there indeed is a more rational explanation for the nocturnal switch, such as a caring parent acting the part, for example, but you will have none of it. You believe the Tooth Fairy exists, have evidence to support your belief, and dismiss the scientific explanation as heretical. Just a bunch of pointy head liberals who don’t understand that of course the Tooth Fairy is real. canada goose clearance
cheap Canada Goose Fortunately, we all grow out of believing in the Tooth Fairy. Well, no, we don’t. We just transfer that belief to something we call “god.” God is the Tooth Fairy, and the Tooth Fairy is god. Instead of looking for a dollar under our pillow, we look to miracles as evidence to support our belief, ignoring the fact that belief cannot be supported by evidence. Yet, we insist. We see statues of the Virgin Mary crying blood, or the face of Jesus on an eggplant, or witness a healer laying hands giving ambulation to the disabled. Instead of the story involving a tooth and quarter, our narrative becomes more complex (we are adults after all), with the plot thickening to include creation and an afterlife. But both stories are made up, figments of our imagination, equally supported by “evidence.” Both are valid only because we believe. The first impulse would be to dismiss as completely absurd any equality between god and the Tooth Fairy. But resist the temptation, and ask yourself a simple question: how do the two really differ? Whatever argument you come up with to support a belief in god, can you not also apply to the Tooth Fairy, or Santa Claus, or trolls under a bridge in Ireland? Yes, of course, the concept that the Tooth canada goose outlet florida Fairy is real is lunacy. But so, canada goose outlet black friday too, the belief in god. The notion that god exists is as childish and as silly as the belief that a mythical creature enters your bedroom at night to give alms for your milk teeth. This is a poor foundation for human morality. cheap Canada Goose
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